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IPS EMax of Dental restorations


The summary of the findings, the findings of current literature, and clinical recommendation for the utilization of IPS e.Max CAD in dental applications.


Over the previous couple of decades, the sector of dental ceramics has evolved rapidly, both in material properties and manufacturing techniques. One such material is that the IPS e. Max line (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), which comes in two forms, a block which will be milled during a CAD/CAM system (IPS e.Max CAD) and an ingot used for pressable crown. Thanks to the recent nature of those materials, research into the fabric science, mechanical and optical properties, and clinical applications remains ongoing. By that specialize in reviewing literature associated with IPS e.Max CAD, this paper aims to supply a background on the fabric , a quick review of current literature associated with the fabric s science and mechanical properties of the material, a review of the optical and esthetic properties of the fabric , and an summary of clinical findings, recommendations, and applications.

Background and material history

Lithium disilicate (2SiO2–Li2O) dental ceramics were first introduced in 1988 to be used as a heat-pressed core material marketed as IPS(Ivoclar Vivadent, Lichtenstein).. Reformulation and refinement of the assembly process of Empress led to the assembly of a replacement ceramic line. IPS e. Max Press Ultimately the introduction of thee, Max line would cause the discontinuation of the Empress

IPS e.Max CAD as a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, specifically prepared for CAD/CAM. The fabric comes prepared during a “blue state,” where it’s composed primarily of lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3), which is simpler to mill and leads to lower. After the milling process is completed, the fabric is heat-treated and glazed in one step, forming the ultimate lithium disilicate restoration. thanks to its esthetic nature, impressive strength, and simple use.

Microstructure properties and phase transformation

The fact IPS e.Max CAD is milled and delivered in several states, makes the microstructure properties and phase transformation a neighborhood of particular interest. Thanks to the unique and dynamic nature of the fabric , there has been significant interest in understanding the microstructure of both the partially crystallized and fully crystallized microstructure of the fabric . Additional interest has been taken within the phase transformation process. Thanks to the connection between microstructure and mechanical and optical properties, ongoing characterization of those states has been the topic of intense study.

As mentioned briefly before, e. Max CAD is purchased and milled during a partially crystallized, “blue state.” consistent with the manufacturer, various formulations of glass (namely SiO2, Li2O, P2O5, ZrO2, ZnO, K2O, and Al2O3 ) A study that analyzed the varied phases present within the material through various firing temperatures confirmed the presence and persistence of a glassy phase through X-ray diffraction (XRD). The partially crystallized state is more easily milled and leads to less bur wear and high edge stability.

IPS e.Max CAD produces a microstructure of 70% fine grain lithium disilicate crystals, embedded during a similar glassy matrix. Factors associated with crystalline structure like size, volume fraction, and distribution are known to play a big role in both the mechanical and chemical properties of a ceramic material, however, despite many studies, the precise relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties has yet to be determined. Max CAD plays within the microstructural properties of fracture toughness, compressive strength, and even optical properties, material characterization will definitely still be a neighborhood of intense study.

Mechanical properties

IPS e.Max CAD has seen increasing use since its introduction thanks to its exceptional mechanical properties.

Studies have ranged from understanding the evolution of the fabric to comparing material performance to existing all-ceramic and CAD/CAM products on the market. the subsequent section will present the present understanding of the mechanical properties of the partially crystallized starting material, changes during the firing process, and knowledge available associated with the mechanical properties of the ultimate , tempered material.

Characterization of the fabric in its partially crystallized “blue state” has been performed to work out the initial properties of the fabric . During this partially crystallized form, the fabric exhibits moderate flexible denture of 130 MPa and fracture toughness at 0.9–1.25 MP A m1/2. After tempering the mechanical properties of the fabric change dramatically.This shrinkage has been noted as a possible explanation for gaps at the margins of restorations and compromises internal fit, though this shrinkage doesn’t end in discrepancies significantly different than other CAD/CAM materials. The fully crystallized sort of IPS™ e.Max CAD (obtained by following manufacturer specifications firing at 770 °C for five min, then 850 °C for 10 min) has been shown to possess a recorded flexural strength of two 62–360 MPa and a fracture toughness of 2.0–2.5 MPa. IPS e.Max CAD has been shown to possess flexural strength above other leucite reinforced dental ceramics. One study on the evolution of mechanical properties at different temperatures throughout the heating process showed that the macro mechanical physical properties might be significantly altered counting on the heating schedule. Another study that compared IPS e.Max CAD to other available CAD/CAM ceramics concluded that mechanical properties are hooked into the structural composition of the fabric , not their chemical formulation.

Color and optical properties

In restorative dentistry, color and optical properties play a serious role in patient satisfaction and restorative success. Because the mechanical properties of obtainable ceramics improved, attention on optical properties like color and tooth structure moved to the forefront.This section will discuss the colour and translucency properties of the fabric .

Besides coming during a big variety of colours IPS™ e.Max CAD is additionally available in three levels of translucency, medium opacity (MO), high translucency (HT), and low translucency (LT). 

Clinical performance and indications

Since the discharge of IPS e.Max CAD a touch over a decade ago, many studies have focused on determining the clinical recommendations and limitations of the fabric . As a result of this relatively limited timeframe, there’s a definite lack of literature discussing long-term survival and outcomes for the fabric . The manufacturer and other groups have released recommendations and clinical guidelines to think about when utilizing the fabric. The subsequent section will discuss indications, implementation considerations, and literature regarding failure and fatigue testing.

IPS e. Max CAD might be implemented as a veneering material, for inlays and Onlays, partial and full crowns, three-unit fixed partial dentures (FPD) within the anterior, premolar, and posterior region. e. Max are often used for monolithic crowns, veneers, and glued partial dentures, not even as a framework. Thanks to the relatively recent introduction of IPS™ e.Max CAD few clinical studies exist that check out restoration longevity. Finally, one study checked out collected literature to work out projected survival rates of varied ceramic restorations. For IPS e.Max CAD concluded that inlays and Onlays would have significantly long expected lifetimes (10% at 124 years and 30 years respectively) but a significantly shorter estimated lifetime (10% failure in 30 years) in comparison to crowns with a zirconia substructure. Unfortunately, there’s a scarcity of literature that gives a more comprehensive check out of short-term studies, and a scarcity of complete data and inconsistent reporting introduces further difficulties. there’s a scarcity of clinical studies that assess the survival of monolithic IPS™ e.Max CAD restorations in multiple unit FPD applications.

For single anterior teeth, most all-ceramic systems are clinically proven to possess acceptable longevity and wear characteristics in clinical trials. For single-unit crowns, esthetics are often a primary consideration. The translucency properties of IPS™ e.Max CAD in both the HT and LT formulation, make it possible to put margins that blend with adjacent dentition, effectively masking the sides of the restoration. Edge discoloration is another concern when it involves margin placement.Unfortunately, very similar to clinical failure rates of posterior restorations, there’s little clinical evidence of failure for anterior restorations thanks to fracture or undesirable esthetic complications.


Since its introduction, IPS e. Max CAD has seen growing popularity thanks to the mixture of its excellent mechanical properties and acceptable aesthetics.Initial studies during this field have indicated that deviations within the protocol of the tempering procedure can produce substantial changes in microstructural properties. Additional evidence has shown that changes in microstructure within the material can have a good sort of not only physical properties but also optical properties, like translucency and color.



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